Belgian Supreme Court, League of Arab States v T.M., Nr. S.99.0103.F/1, 12 March 2001
The Supreme Court ruled that international norms (in casu the immunity from jurisdiction of an international organisation) can only be part of the internal legal order once they bind the Belgian state. In this case, although there was a headquarters agreement between Belgium and the League of Arab States, this agreement had not (yet) been ratified by the Federal Parliament (Chamber of Representatives). The Belgian Constitution states in art. 167 that treaties only come into effect after they have received the assent of the Chamber of Representatives. Although the Community Parliaments had already accepted the ratification, this was not yet the case for the federal Parliament. Consequently, the immunity plea was rejected, since no rights could be derived from a ‘treaty’ that was not ratified by the federal parliament. Rights could not be derived from a treaty that did not meet the (full) requirements of ratification. The League made another attempt by referring to the 1986 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organisations or between International Organisations to support the immunity exception. This treaty, however, still lacked the number of ratifications required for its entry into force. Also, the reasoning of the League that the immunity of international organisations would constitute a general principle of law was not accepted.